Infectious diseases result from the invasion of pathogenic organisms such as viruses, fungi, bacteria, or parasites. As pathogens such as viruses enter host cells and multiply, critical cellular processes become compromised. Indeed, the life cycle of viral pathogens co-opts and deregulates many aspects of host cell biology such as vesicle trafficking, anti- viral innate immune response, protein translation, and cell- cycle regulation. The host organism responds to viral infection in a multitude of ways, which includes leveraging the adaptive and innate branches of the immune system. The nature of a host immune response can play an important role in viral disease pathogenesis. A weak immune response can increase the severity of infection, whereas an immune overreaction can have deleterious effects. In addition, some viral pathogens have evolved strategies to evade the host immune response, allowing for more efficient propagation. Pathogenesis of diseases such as Dengue fever, the common cold, flu, Zika, HIV/AIDS, can be propagated by evasion of the immune response, a faulty immune system, or inflammation. Cell Signaling Technology (CST) offers a unique portfolio of antibodies capable of specifically detecting different post- translational modifications on key signaling proteins, which are often altered by viral pathogens during the course of infection. In addition, we offer a broad range of highly validated total protein antibodies to interrogate host cell biological process that are often disrupted by pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2.